Spermatophyta: Dicotyledonae: Metachlamydeae: Lamiales


Fischer, E. (1992) Systematik der afrikanischen Lindernieae (Scrophulariaceae) Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt 81

Fischer, E., Schäferhoff, B. & Müller, K. (2013) The phylogeny of Linderniaceae – The new genus Linderniella, and new combinations within Bonnaya, Craterostigma, Lindernia, Micranthemum, Torenia and Vandellia Willdenowia 43 209-238

Leistner, O.A. (ed.) (2000) Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera Strelitzia 10

Philcox, D. (1990) Scrophulariaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(2)

Description of the family

Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes aquatic, other times terrestrial but often growing in seasonally wet habitats. Leaves usually opposite and decussate at least near the base, sometimes whorled or arranged in a rosette, occasionally alternate above, rarely floating. Flowers solitary and axillary or arranged in terminal racemes or axillary fascicles. Corolla 2-lipped; upper lip usually 2-lobed; lobes of the upper lip exterior in bud (covering lobes of lower lip); lower lip usually larger and 3-lobed; corolla without pouches, pockets or spurs near base of corolla tube or limb. Stamens 4, all fertile or only upper pair fertile and with 2 staminodes; all stamens and staminodes arising at the top of corolla tube or in the throat, anterior ones usually with appendages at base, rarely simple (Lindernia conferta); anther thecae 2, distinct or confluent. Nectary present or absent. Ovary 2-locular with many ovules in each loculus. Fruit a capsule. Seeds usually small and numerous.

Botswana: 4 genera and 5 taxa.

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Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

Craterostigma Hochst.Description
Crepidorhopalon Eb. Fisch.Description
Lindernia All.Description
Torenia L.Description, Image

Other sources of information about Linderniaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: Linderniaceae
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Linderniaceae
Flora of Malawi: Linderniaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Linderniaceae
Flora of Zambia: Linderniaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: Linderniaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Linderniaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Linderniaceae
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Linderniaceae
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Linderniaceae
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Linderniaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Linderniaceae
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Linderniaceae
JSTOR Plant Science: Linderniaceae
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Linderniaceae
Wikipedia: Linderniaceae
Plants of the World Online: Linderniaceae
Tropicos: Linderniaceae

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Botswana: Family page: Linderniaceae.
https://www.botswanaflora.com/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=291, retrieved 21 July 2024

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