Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) P. Beauv.

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Synonyms: Echinochloa scabra (Lam.) Roem. & Schult.
Panicum crus-galli var. leiostachyum Franch.
Panicum crus-galli var. maximum Franch.
Panicum crus-galli var. submuticum Franch.
Panicum scabrum Lam.
Panicum stagninum Retz.
Panicum subaristatum Peter
Common names:
Status: Native
Annual, but apparently sometimes a rhizomatous perennial. Culms 20–200 cm. high, spongy, decumbent and rooting at nodes; ligule a line of hairs. Inflorescence 6–25 cm. long, ovate to narrowly lanceolate, typically loose with the racemes secund, flexuous and ± nodding, but displaying much variation; racemes 2–10 cm. long, simple, coarsely spiculate. Spikelets 3.5–6 mm. long, narrowly ovate, often tuberculate hispid. Inferior glume length of 1/4–3/4 spikelet; superior glume awnless or with an awn up to 4 mm. long. Inferior lemma tapering to an awn (1)3–20(50) mm. long. Superior lemma 3–5 mm. long.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: Streamsides and pond margins, growing in water; sometimes floating in deep water, or collapsed in a tangle on mud after recession of flood
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Madagascar, Tropical Africa, Assam to Indo-China
Botswana distribution: N,SE
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 14.

Clayton, W.D. (1989). Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(3) Page 57.

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 437. (Includes a picture).

Isaiah, A.M. & Komi, T. (2015). Grasses in the Botswana National Botanic Garden South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria Page 15. (Includes a picture).

Jackson, G. & Wiehe, P.O. (1958). An Annotated Check List of Nyasaland Grasses The Government Printer, Zomba, Nyasaland Page 37.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 103.

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 135.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 188.

Other sources of information about Echinochloa stagnina:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: Echinochloa stagnina
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Echinochloa stagnina
Flora of Malawi: Echinochloa stagnina
Flora of Zambia: Echinochloa stagnina
Flora of Zimbabwe: Echinochloa stagnina

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Echinochloa stagnina
African Plant Database: Echinochloa stagnina
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Echinochloa stagnina
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Echinochloa stagnina
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Echinochloa stagnina
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Echinochloa stagnina
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Echinochloa stagnina
JSTOR Plant Science: Echinochloa stagnina
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Echinochloa stagnina
Plants of the World Online: Echinochloa stagnina
Tropicos: Echinochloa stagnina
Wikipedia: Echinochloa stagnina

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Botswana: Species information: Echinochloa stagnina., retrieved 23 July 2024

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