Xylopia odoratissima Welw. ex Oliv.

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Xylopia odoratissima

Photo: Charles Brightman
Along roadside in suburbs, Victoria Falls.

Xylopia odoratissima

Photo: Charles Brightman
Along roadside in suburbs, Victoria Falls.

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Synonyms: Xylopia antunesii Engl. & Diels
Xylopicrum odoratissimum (Welw. ex Oliv.) Kuntze
Common names: Kalahari bitterwood (English) Kalahari red-fingers (English)
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree, erect or ± spreading. Bark pale to dark grey, sometimes reddish, roughly fissured; branches reddish-brown, dotted with lenticels. Leaves oblong - elliptic, 3.5-12 cm long, dull greyish-green and sparsely hairy above, sometimes somewhat glossy, paler green and more densely appressed hairy below; margin entire. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together on short stalks, greenish to yellowish, pale golden velvety, sweetly scented. Fruit of 1-8 obovoid-cylindric carpels up to 3 × 1 cm, somewhat constricted between the seeds, hairless, red when ripe.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: In open Brachystegia or Baikiaea woodland, usually on sandy soils or rocky ground.
Flowering time:Oct - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Angola, DRC (Katanga), Southwestern Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana.
Botswana distribution: N
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 208 - 209.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Page 89.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 237.

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 171.

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Namibia Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 74.

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 50 - 51. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 17.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 23.

Robson, N.K.B. (1960). Annonaceae Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Page 139.

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 24.

Setshogo, M.P. & Venter, F. (2003). Trees of Botswana: names and distribution SABONET Report No. 18 Southern African Botanical Diversity Network, Pretoria Page 28.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 196.

White, F. (1962). Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia Oxford Univ. Press. Page 54.

Other sources of information about Xylopia odoratissima:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: Xylopia odoratissima
Flora of Zambia: Xylopia odoratissima
Flora of Zimbabwe: Xylopia odoratissima

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Xylopia odoratissima
African Plant Database: Xylopia odoratissima
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Xylopia odoratissima
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Xylopia odoratissima
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Xylopia odoratissima
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Xylopia odoratissima
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Xylopia odoratissima
JSTOR Plant Science: Xylopia odoratissima
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Xylopia odoratissima
Plants of the World Online: Xylopia odoratissima
Tropicos: Xylopia odoratissima
Wikipedia: Xylopia odoratissima

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Botswana: Species information: Xylopia odoratissima.
https://www.botswanaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123870, retrieved 28 May 2024

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