Trapa natans L.
var. bispinosa (Roxb.) Makino

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Trapa natans var. bispinosa

Photo: Brian Rode
Ngamiland Concession 15 - Kings Pool / DumaTau area, Linyanti

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Synonyms: Trapa austroafricana V. Vassiljev
Trapa bispinosa Roxb.
Common names: Water chestnut (English)
Status: Native
Floating aquatic herb. Leaves in floating rosettes, diamond-shaped with margins near the apex coarsely toothed, green above, red below, long petioles reddish, fleshy, swollen in the middle. Submerged leaves finely dissected, root-like. Flowers solitary in leaf axils, small, white. Fruit a triangular hard nut with 2-4 sharp horns.
Derivation of specific name: natans: floating or swimming
Habitat: In deep permanent water in slow moving backwaters of rivers and lakes.
Flowering time:Mar - Apr
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in the tropics
Botswana distribution: N
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Monday 19 October 2015

Baumann, G. (2005). Photographic Guide to Wildflowers of Malawi Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi Pages 58 - 59. as Trapa natans (Includes a picture).

Brenan, J.P.M. (1978). Trapaceae Flora Zambesiaca 4 Pages 346 - 348. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 115.

Ellery, K. & W. (1997). Plants of the Okavango Delta, a Field Guide Tsaro Publishers, Durban, South Africa Page 149. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 81.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 101.

Pooley, E. (1998). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban. Pages 540 - 541. as Trapa natans (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (2011). Wild flowers, Waterplants and Grasses of the Okavango Delta and Kalahari "Did You Know" nature series Struik Nature for Veronica Roodt Publications Page 42. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 109.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 193.

Other sources of information about Trapa natans var. bispinosa:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: Trapa natans var. bispinosa
Flora of Malawi: Trapa natans var. bispinosa
Flora of Mozambique: Trapa natans var. bispinosa
Flora of Zambia: Trapa natans var. bispinosa
Flora of Zimbabwe: Trapa natans var. bispinosa

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Trapa natans
African Plant Database: Trapa natans
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Trapa natans
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Trapa natans
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Trapa natans
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Trapa natans
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Trapa natans
JSTOR Plant Science: Trapa natans
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Trapa natans
Plants of the World Online: Trapa natans
Tropicos: Trapa natans
Wikipedia: Trapa natans

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Botswana: Species information: Trapa natans var. bispinosa., retrieved 25 July 2024

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