Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.

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Nicandra physalodes

Photo: Bart Wursten
Ndundu Lodge, Vumba

Nicandra physalodes

Photo: Bart Wursten
Besna Kobila farm, Matobo

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Synonyms: Atropa physalodes L.
Physalodes physalodes (L.) Britton
Common names: Apple-of-Peru (English) Shoo-fly (English) Shoo-fly plant (English)
Status: Introduced
Hairless annual herb, up to 2 m high. Leaves ovate to elliptic; margin coarsely and irregularly toothed or almost lobed. Corolla 25-40 mm long and wide, blue, sometimes pale blue to almost white, usually whitish in the centre. Fruit spherical, 14-18 mm, brownish. Fruiting calyx 25-35 mm, markedly swollen and winged.
Derivation of specific name: physalodes: resembling a Physalis
Habitat: In disturbed ground, occurring as a weed of crops, roadsides, gardens and also in degraded woodland
Flowering time:Jan - Jun
Worldwide distribution: Native of Peru; a widespread weed in temperate and tropical regions
Botswana distribution: SE
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Baumann, G. (2005). Photographic Guide to Wildflowers of Malawi Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi Pages 124 - 125. (Includes a picture).

Bromilow, C. (2010). Problem Plants and Alien Weeds of South Africa Briza Publications, South Africa Page 300. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 40.

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 26.

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 158.

Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Solanaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(4) Pages 26 - 28. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 79.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 100.

Vernon, R. (1983). Field Guide to Important Arable Weeds of Zambia Dept. of Agriculture, Chilanga, Zambia Pages 64 - 65. (Includes a picture).

Wild, H. (1955). Common Rhodesian Weeds Government of Rhodesia, Salisbury Page 84. (Includes a picture).

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 100.

Other sources of information about Nicandra physalodes:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Nicandra physalodes
Flora of Malawi: Nicandra physalodes
Flora of Mozambique: Nicandra physalodes
Flora of Zambia: Nicandra physalodes
Flora of Zimbabwe: Nicandra physalodes

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Nicandra physalodes
African Plant Database: Nicandra physalodes
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Nicandra physalodes
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Nicandra physalodes
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Nicandra physalodes
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Nicandra physalodes
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Nicandra physalodes
JSTOR Plant Science: Nicandra physalodes
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Nicandra physalodes
Plants of the World Online: Nicandra physalodes
Tropicos: Nicandra physalodes
Wikipedia: Nicandra physalodes

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Botswana: Species information: Nicandra physalodes., retrieved 15 June 2024

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