Solanum campylacanthum A. Rich.

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Solanum campylacanthum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Rimiti West, road to Hot Springs

Solanum campylacanthum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cecil Kop, Mutare

Solanum campylacanthum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Near Mubvee (Hippo) Lodge, Mana Pools

Solanum campylacanthum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cleveland Dam, Harare

Solanum campylacanthum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cleveland Dam, Harare

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Synonyms: Solanum bojeri Dunal
Solanum delagoense Dunal
Solanum incanum sensu auct. pro parte
Solanum panduriforme E. Mey.
Common names:
Status: Probably native
Perennial herb or herbaceous small shrub, often unarmed but occasionally with a few prickles. Leaves elliptic, entire or slightly wavy on the margins, dark green above, paler and tomentose below. Flowers in clusters along the branches, sometimes axillary or leaf-opposed; corolla pale to deep blue, mauve or purple, occasionally white, 1.5 cm in diameter, fragrant. Fruit spherical, green, often striped or mottled with white, turning yellow to orange-brown when ripe.
Notes: According to latest thinking the populations in eastern and southern Africa are separated from Solanum incanum which occurs in desert habitats further north and through the Arabic Peninsula as far as Pakistan (Knapp, Vorontsova & Jaime Prohens, 2013).
Populations in our region however are still considered very variable. The vast majority of plants encountered are as described above with narrow, unlobed or hardly lobed leaves and very few if any spines. Occasionally though, more robust specimens are found with broader leaves which are distinctly lobed and plants are conspicuously spiny on almost all parts. Although some intermediate forms do exist, the extremes are so distinctly different that it seems hard to believe they are all the same taxon. Examples of this other form can be seen here.
Derivation of specific name: panduriforme: fiddle-shaped, referring to the leaves.
Habitat: Along roadsides and in disturbed areas.
Flowering time:Nov - Mar
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in from Eastern Africa to South Africa.
Botswana distribution: N,SW,SE
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Baumann, G. (2005). Photographic Guide to Wildflowers of Malawi Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi Pages 124 - 125. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 272. as Solanum panduriforme

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 867. (Includes a picture).

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 59. (Includes a picture).

Kirby, G. (2013). Wild Flowers of Southeast Botswana Struik Nature, Cape Town South Africa Page 329. As Solanum delagoense (Includes a picture).

Knapp, S., Vorontsova, M. S. & Prohens, J. (2013). Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 80. As Solanum delagoense

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 108. (Includes a picture).

Plowes, D.C.H. & Drummond, R.B. (1990). Wild Flowers of Zimbabwe. Revised edition. Longman, Zimbabwe. No. 108, plate 146

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 106.

Shone, D.K. & Drummond, R.B. (1965). Poisonous Plants of Rhodesia Ministry of Agriculture, Rhodesia Page 49.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 226.

Wild, H. (1955). Common Rhodesian Weeds Government of Rhodesia, Salisbury Page 89. as Solanum incanum (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Solanum campylacanthum:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: Solanum campylacanthum
Flora of Malawi: Solanum campylacanthum
Flora of Mozambique: Solanum campylacanthum
Flora of Zambia: Solanum campylacanthum
Flora of Zimbabwe: Solanum campylacanthum

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Solanum campylacanthum
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Solanum campylacanthum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Solanum campylacanthum
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Solanum campylacanthum
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Solanum campylacanthum
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Solanum campylacanthum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Solanum campylacanthum
iNaturalist: Solanum campylacanthum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Solanum campylacanthum
JSTOR Plant Science: Solanum campylacanthum
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Solanum campylacanthum
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Solanum campylacanthum
Plants of the World Online: Solanum campylacanthum
Tropicos: Solanum campylacanthum
Wikipedia: Solanum campylacanthum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-22

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2022). Flora of Botswana: Species information: Solanum campylacanthum., retrieved 3 October 2022

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